By Sylvia Chalker, Edmund Weiner
This significant new reference bargains the final reader, scholar, transparent and rapid A-Z entry to 1,000 grammatical phrases and their meanings. All at the moment authorised phrases are incorporated, in addition to conventional phrases, extra debatable more recent phrases, and phrases belonging to linguistics. every one time period is followed through a concise definition and unique factors, together with examples of language in use and common quotations from present texts.
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Additional resources for The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar
I will just debate whether SL-hood is a matter reducible to properties of (outer or inner) aspect or tense. 3 The Structure of Copular Constructions Because this work concerns IL predicates in copular constructions, I will introduce here the syntactic analysis I assume for copular sentences. In essence, I adopt Stowell’s (1978, 1981) proposal that the copula takes (as its complement) a small clause (SC) containing the NP subject and the predicate. Stowell proposed to analyze the subject and the predicate of copular sentences as integrants of an SC, which be takes.
That is, when(ever) can refer to predicates that can be iterated in time, which does not mean that it selects for predicates denoting properties of stages. That when(ever)-clauses select for properties that can be iterated in time seems clear. I also agree that this does not have to be equated with SL-hood, since the copula ser perfectly fits in such contexts. On my view, the situational variable linked to SL predicates is just one of the possible variables susceptible of “referential variability,” which is the crucial factor licensing distributivity (Beghelli 1995, Beghelli & Stowell 1996, Szabolcsi 1996, among others).
As noted earlier, such events are called “semelfactives” (Smith 1991). Semelfactives are not of great relevance to this work, so I will not discuss them further. 1 briefly characterizes each event type and provides some more examples. Achievements Instantaneous events, with an endpoint but no duration Accomplishments Actions with a culminating point that take duration to be completed. They can be considered as complex events with internal steps toward an end. Events with duration but no endpoint Activities States Semelfactives No-actions that hold in time but do not take time.
The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar by Sylvia Chalker, Edmund Weiner