By Kieran Williams, Dennis Deletant (auth.)
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Extra resources for Security Intelligence Services in New Democracies: The Czech Republic, Slovakia and Romania
20 The origin of a political police One seminal factor was the fragmented structure of the new post-war security apparatus. The various units of partisans, armed trade unionists and vetted members of the pre-war police were brought under the umbrella of a National Security Corps (SNB) in summer 1945, but the SNB remained sub-divided into numerous rival agencies, including: • State Security (StB), initially dedicated to hunting down collaborators with the German Protectorate or Slovak puppet regime – a mandate easily misued to harass any critic of the KSC; • intelligence (ZS), which monitored all past and present political parties and institutions as well as foreign and economic espionage;21 • a uniformed police, later known as Public Security (VB); • a criminal-investigative service; • border guards and ‘emergency units’.
The StB tried to compromise him by directing his former secretary to seduce him, and sought to extract information from his doctor, grandmother, sister and former workmates. 82 The extent of surveillance and persecution Trends in surveillance, like those in the informer ranks, encapsulate the country’s drift toward a more predictable post-totalitarianism. 3 shows the peak of surveillance in 1953–5, followed by the bell curve of Czechoslovakia’s oblique de-Stalinization. 45000 40000 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 1967 1965 1963 1961 1959 1957 1955 1953 1951 0 Source: A FMV, f.
Neglect of security intelligence is one of the most striking shortcomings of the transitological literature. This disregard probably stems from analysts’ overall indifference to the ‘interplay between democratization and bureaucracy’. See Haile K. Asmerom and Elisa P. Reis, eds, Democratization and Bureaucratic Neutrality (London: Macmillan, 1996), p. 3. For a rare study, see Jonathan Moran, ‘The Role of Security Services in Democratization: An Analysis of South Korea’s Agency for National Security Planning’, Intelligence and National Security, vol.
Security Intelligence Services in New Democracies: The Czech Republic, Slovakia and Romania by Kieran Williams, Dennis Deletant (auth.)