By Maria Chiara Maiuri, Daniela De Stefano
Autophagy mostly serves an adaptive functionality to guard organisms opposed to varied human pathologies, together with melanoma and neurodegeneration. contemporary advancements utilizing in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo versions exhibit the involvement of the autophagy pathway in immunity and irritation. furthermore, direct interactions among autophagy proteins and immune signalling molecules have additionally been tested. Defects in autophagy - just like melanoma, neurodegenerative ailments and getting older - via autophagy gene mutation and/or microbial antagonism, may perhaps underlie the pathogenesis of many infectious illnesses and inflammatory syndromes. regardless of the expanding expertise of the significance of autophagy in those pathophysiological stipulations, this technique is still underestimated and is usually missed. thus, its position within the initiation, balance, upkeep, and development of those ailments are nonetheless poorly understood. This publication studies the new advances concerning the services of the autophagy pathway and autophagy proteins in immunity and irritation, concentrating on their function in self-nonself contrast, their implications in innate and adaptive immune responses and their dysregulation within the pathology of definite inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.
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Extra resources for Autophagy Networks in Inflammation
Autophagy 9(3):403–409. 23002 Ganley IG, Wong PM, Gammoh N, Jiang X (2011) Distinct autophagosomal-lysosomal fusion mechanism revealed by thapsigargin-induced autophagy arrest. Mol Cell 42(6):731–743. 024 Gonzalez-Polo RA, Niso-Santano M, Ortiz-Ortiz MA, Gomez-Martin A, Moran JM, GarciaRubio L, Francisco-Morcillo J, Zaragoza C, Soler G, Fuentes JM (2007) Relationship between autophagy and apoptotic cell death in human neuroblastoma cells treated with paraquat: could autophagy be a “brake” in paraquat-induced apoptotic death?
Thus, the M45 factor of the murine cytomegalovirus interacts with a NF-κB regulatory factor called NEMO causing its degradation by autophagy and alteration of NF-κB-related antiviral genes induction . In dendritic cells, HIV-1 inhibits autophagy rapidly after infection via its viral envelope protein. This inhibition interferes with innate immune response such as TLRs-induced TNF-α production . A similar inhibition has been observed in the case of HCMV. While HCMV promotes the autophagic flux early after infection, it blocks autophagosome maturation at latter time points via de novo synthesis of the TRS1 viral factor, which interacts with Beclin-1.
1038/nrm3025 Autophagy and Pattern Recognition Receptors Christophe Viret and Mathias Faure Abstract Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved eukaryotic process that eliminates intracellular components through lysosomal degradation for recycling. It is a hierarchized multistep process that is involved in a multitude of cellular functions and its fine regulation is required for cell homeostasis as indicated by the various pathologies associated with autophagy dysfunctions. During the recent years, it was recognized that autophagy plays important roles in host defense against microbial infection as well.
Autophagy Networks in Inflammation by Maria Chiara Maiuri, Daniela De Stefano