By Kate Hampshire, Bob Simpson
Following the start of the 1st “test-tube child” in 1978, Assisted Reproductive applied sciences turned to be had to a small variety of humans in high-income international locations in a position to have the funds for the price of inner most therapy, a interval noticeable because the “First part” of ARTs. within the “Second Phase,” those remedies grew to become more and more to be had to cosmopolitan international elites. this present day, this photograph is altering — albeit slowly and erratically — as ARTs have gotten extra commonly to be had. whereas, for lots of, gaining access to infertility remedies is still a dream, those are commencing to be seen as a typical a part of reproductive healthcare and kin making plans. This quantity highlights this “Third section” — the hole up of ARTs to new constituencies by way of ethnicity, geography, schooling, and sophistication.
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Additional info for Assisted Reproductive Technologies in the Third Phase: Global Encounters and Emerging Moral Worlds
In the final chapter, ‘Whither Kinship? Assisted Reproductive Technologies and Relatedness in the Islamic Republic of Iran’, this theme of resistance is abundantly apparent. For as anthropologist Soraya Tremayne (2009, 2012) has shown in her previous path-breaking work, Iran is leading the way into the brave new world of third-party reproductive assistance, with leading clerics taking morally pioneering decisions in this regard. As a result, Iran is currently the only Muslim country where third-party gamete and embryo donations are widely practised, along with altruistic and commercial gestational surrogacy.
As a result, Iran is currently the only Muslim country where third-party gamete and embryo donations are widely practised, along with altruistic and commercial gestational surrogacy. Yet, even within this ‘permissive’ ART environment, certain Islamic rules of kinship are supposed to be maintained. Most importantly, Islamic doctrines are very specific about incest and adultery, dividing men and women into two categories: mahrams, who are relatives and are not potential marital or sexual partners, versus na-mahrams, who are not relatives, but are potential marital and sexual partners.
Their pronouncements on such matters arise, just as the answers of the more junior Shaykh Muqdad, in response to queries of all sorts from their lay followers, nowadays in fact mostly received through electronic media, as emails to their websites, and mediated through their staff (Clarke 2010). These are particular responses to particular questions and cases, often elliptical, sometimes frustratingly so. Responses are never programmatic, comprehensive presentations of ‘policy’. A case in point is Khamene’i’s notorious fatwa on donor insemination, reproduced in an authoritative collection widely available in Arabic in Beirut, and to be found on some doctors’ shelves ready to answer patients’ worried queries.
Assisted Reproductive Technologies in the Third Phase: Global Encounters and Emerging Moral Worlds by Kate Hampshire, Bob Simpson