By P. T Abraham
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Extra info for Apatani Grammar
The woman hide behind the tree' 'ura ho': This is used to indicate that the locus is inside the referent. nuriu ude ura ho du . we house inside loc. exist 'we are inside the house' sani rabu ura ho tabu do. tree hole inside loc. snake exist 'there is a snake inside the hole of the tree ' yalafi rabu ura ho ni dastone hole inside loc. fish exist 'there are fish inside the stones' 'ago ho': This is used to indicate that the locus is outside the referent. w. house outside loc. stand-exist 'many people are standing outside the house' ago ho ano lexi dooutside loc.
If the noun phrase is not specified then it occurs with the generic marker 'k' . As already mentioned, determiners are 'si' and 'hi'. As a result the fusion of the locative case sign with the determiner/ generic marker, they function as a single unit. The different forms are given below: si + o -•> so 'indicates location in proximity' hi + o —> ho 'indicates location in remoteness' k —• ko 'indicates location without specifying any spatial situation' + o The locative noun phrase indicates the location of the event/action identified by the verb.
They are formed by adding the locative element 'o' to the deictic pronouns and APATANI GRAMMAR/33 third person pronoun - hi 'he/she/it' (unknown/ invisible). si + o > so insi + o > inso intosi + o > intoso hi + o > ho As shown above, as a result of sandhi changes, the forms given in the right hand side of the arrow are derived forms. They are listed with meaning below: so 'here (proximate)' inso 'there (intermediate distance)' intoso 'there (far away)' ho 'there (unknown/invisible) The deictic categories 'si' and 'hi' are also used as determiners.
Apatani Grammar by P. T Abraham