By Aditi Lahiri
Starting from tonogensis, tension shift, and volume adjustment of paradigmatic levelling, allomorphy, and grammaticalization, this assortment covers a large speectrum of advancements, basically in Germanice, Romance, and Indo-Aryan.
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Extra info for Analogy, Levelling, Markedness: Principles of Change in Phonology and Morphology
Dominated by FAITHFULNESS and by *Q', and therefore violated where its satisfaction would require either the deletion or epenthesis of melodic content, or an impermissible Q'-cluster. g. akran, ehta), and the abovementioned medial cases of the types aiauk and fian, fijan. yVare both *ONSET violations. (d) FOOT-FORM: a word must consist of moraic trochees (allowing for the extrametricality of a final mora or the equivalent, as indicated). That is, it must be parsed into long syllables or pairs of light syllables.
This constraint is dominated by ONSET but in turn dominates FOOT-FORM below. (b) *COMPLEX-J: a consonant clusters may not contain the glide j. Unviolated. This constraint is obtained by conjoining the two primitive constraints *j and * COMPLEX. The conjoined constraint, which says that both the primitive constraints may not be violated at the same time, is visible because it is ranked higher than either of the primitive constraints that it is composed of (Prince and Smolensky 1993). The former of these constraints properly says that a vocalic melody must be affiliated with a mora, and comes from a theory of the syllable that I hope to present elsewhere.
12) Summary of nouns with and without lengthening Old English Middle English Modern English SG PL SG PL SG PL Vowel a. OSL in singular and plural: Modern English long vowels talu tala tab tab > tale tales [e:] tabs nama naman nama naman > name names [e:] namas b. OSL in plural only: Modern English long and short vowels hol holu hol hob > hole holes [o:] holes god godes god gödes god gods [D] c. OSL in singular and TSS in plural: Modern English long and short vowels water wateras water wateras water waters [D] beofor beoferas bever beveres beaver beavers [i:] d.
Analogy, Levelling, Markedness: Principles of Change in Phonology and Morphology by Aditi Lahiri