Allen's Dictionary of English Phrases by Robert Allen PDF

By Robert Allen

ISBN-10: 0141917687

ISBN-13: 9780141917689

Allen's Dictionary of English words is the main finished survey of this quarter of the English language ever undertaken. taking on 6000 words: it explains their which means: explores their improvement and offers citations that diversity from the Venerable Bede to Will Self. Crisply and wittily written: the booklet is filled with memorable and marvelous element: no matter if displaying that 'salad days' comes from Antony and Cleopatra: that 'flavour of the month' originates in Nineteen Forties American ice cream advertising: or perhaps that we've been 'calling a spade a spade' because the 16th century. Allen's Dictionary of English words is a part of the Penguin Reference Library and attracts on over 70 years of expertise in bringing trustworthy: priceless and transparent details to thousands of readers all over the world – making wisdom everybody's estate.

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Sample text

2 As interest rates change, so will the liabilities cost. Thus, as shown in Figure 36, an interest-rate change from 8 percent to 7 percent would lead to an $11 million (11 percent) increase in the present value cost of these liabilities. Using terminology usually reserved for the asset side, this 11 percent cost increase has been referred to here as a liability return. As shown previously, the liability return represents a threshold that the assets must match to maintain a 21t should be noted that both the liability schedules and the discount rates have been depicted in nominal terms.

When interest rates rose, as they did in 1980 and 1981, low liability returns often led to increases in the surplus. In contrast, when interest rates fell, the value of the liabilities rose and typically exceeded stock and bond market returns. The pattern shown in Figures 24, 25, and 27 is no coincidence, but may reflect a fundamental and dangerous liability trap. Liability Rctztmzs Thus, in terms of surplus growth, the net performance of a pension fund may be most vulnerable precisely when fund sponsors and/or managers encounter the most favorable market returns and ample growth in the market value of their portfolios.

Total Portfolio Dzlratiorz A N m FPrspectizlc olz A s s ~ Allocation t Chapter 3 Liability Returns In the preceding chapter, a procedure was developed for computing a total duration value for a portfolio that included both stocks and bonds. This duration value is related to the interest-rate sensitivity of the liabilities. The emphasis was on gauging the net interest-rate risk for a given asset allocation. The duration of the stock market was estimated using the volatility and correlation characteristics of the S&P 500 relative to the Salomon Brothers BEG Index.

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Allen's Dictionary of English Phrases by Robert Allen

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