By Maciej Widawski
During this pioneering exploration of African American slang - a hugely casual vocabulary and an important element of African American English - Maciej Widawski explores styles of shape, which means, subject matter and serve as, exhibiting it to be a rule-governed, cutting edge and culturally revealing vernacular. Widawski's finished description is predicated on a wide database of contextual citations from hundreds of thousands of latest resources, together with literature and the click, song, movie and tv. it is also an alphabetical thesaurus of 1,500 consultant slang expressions, outlined and illustrated by way of 4,500 utilization examples. as a result of its substantial dimension, the thesaurus can stand on my own as a dictionary delivering readers with a competent reference of phrases. Combining scholarship with user-friendliness, this ebook is an insightful and sensible source for college students and researchers in linguistics and normal readers attracted to exploring lexical edition in modern English.
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Extra resources for African American Slang: A Linguistic Description
Each entry contains a headword, abbreviated grammatical identiﬁcation, usage label (where appropriate), standard English equivalent or deﬁnition, additional reference information, and citational examples, each preceded by the date and name of its source. The equivalents and deﬁnitions were derived using standard lexicographic procedures, which included analyzing and comparing the meaning of each expression in numerous contextual examples of usage found in the database, verifying them with native speakers, and cross-checking them with several reference books, including those by Major (1994), Smitherman (2000a), Kearse (2006), Kipfer and Chapman (2007) and Green (2010) mentioned above; references to these works – labeled cm, gs, rk, bk and jg – can often be found at the end of Glossary deﬁnitions.
The association is usually jocular and sometimes reminiscent of baby talk. Reduplication is a long-attested feature of African American slang, according to Flexner and Soukhanov (1997: 16), dating back to the colonial period. So is rhyming, often employed in rap and hip-hop music. Rhyming communicates quick wit and verbal forcefulness quite well, and can be jocular in nature. Two main types of reduplication can be discerned. Exact reduplications involve a precise doubling of the entire word. They are the simplest, and at the same time, rather rare creations.
The internet was used extensively, and a sizeable portion of citations was copied directly from online sources. The reading, listening and watching procedures were extensive and represent several hundred hours of analyzing text, sound and images. Signiﬁcantly, large searchable computer corpora like the American National Corpus or British National Corpus were used sporadically. This is because corpus linguistics still has a rather marginal applicability to the study of slang due to slang’s largely 16 Foundations ﬁgurative nature, as yet impossible for computers to process adequately; the search engines of electronic corpora simply cannot differentiate between the literal and ﬁgurative meanings of expressions.
African American Slang: A Linguistic Description by Maciej Widawski