By Jurg Andreas Stuckelberger
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Additional info for A Weighted-graph Optimization Approach for Automatic Location of Forest Road Networks
10 m (Fig. 4). The ﬁrst group comprised mesozoic and tertiary sediment formations, typical of the northern slopes of the Alps, and included conglomerate, sandstone, limestone, and ﬂysch. The second group consisted of intrusive and the metamorphic rock formations – granite and gneiss – that are typical for the central and southern slopes of the Alps. The third group consisted of quaternary formation such as moraine and alluvial deposit. For slope gradients of up to approximately 40%, the necessary volume of rock excavation was of minor importance and could be easily neglected.
If the random number is smaller than the probability, the link is classiﬁed as “feasible”; otherwise, it is “infeasible” (Eq. 2). This relaxation provides some link over the maximum allowable road gradient for preliminary planning. During the ﬁeld survey and detailed planning, the vertical road alignment must then be adjusted so that the average road gradient does not exceed nmax . Although some links may have a gradient above the maximum allowable limit, it is unlikely that the overall gradient between the start-terminal and the end-terminal will be larger than the allowable gradient due to a small tolerance.
8. 9. 9 are analogously applicable for negative slope gradients (η < 0). However, in these cases cut-slope and ﬁll-slope angles (φcut and φf ill ) had to be more negative than ground slope angle (η) because of geometrical constraints. When one knows the relation of wcut to wf ill , one can then calculate self-balanced cut-andﬁll volumes for each location in the project area. However, such a cross-section design is not always the most appropriate. 2. METHODS AND MODEL DEVELOPMENT 25 embankment stability in steep terrain or unstable subsoil conditions by shifting the road structure horizontally in the uphill direction.
A Weighted-graph Optimization Approach for Automatic Location of Forest Road Networks by Jurg Andreas Stuckelberger