By Martin Posthumus
Novegradian is an artificially developed language, an scan in language improvement and evolution set opposed to an alternate his- torical timeline. In engaged on it, I sought to create whatever real looking, a language which may conceivably be visible as a modern day sibling to the opposite Slavic languages of japanese Europe. The contents of this grammar weren't easily created out of skinny air; it concerned loads of learn into the opposite Slavic languages, their improvement, and the historic linguistic historical past of the wider Slavic language relations, in addition to the Uralic languages that have been regularly spoken within the related territory because the actual outdated Novgorodian and my very own sleek Novegradian. lots of the inherited vocabulary used to be hand-derived from reconstructed universal Slavic, believed to be the ancestor of the entire modern day Slavic languages. loads of idea and energy was once positioned into actually each be aware of this language. it's been a proj- ect of 4 years on the time of writing, and that i desire that point is mirrored within the caliber of the product.
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Extra resources for A reference grammaer of the Novegradian language. Довѣднике по граматикѣ новеградескаево лизика
The exact realization of the palatal consonants /c ɟ/ varies quite a bit. [c ɟ] are considered the most proper forms, although the palatalized velars [kʲ gʲ] are generally regarded as an acceptable variant, particularly in regions where Novegradian is still widely learned as a second language, as in parts of Estonia, Finland, Karelia, and Komi; in these areas /c ɟ/ therefore are not distinguished from /k g/ before stressed front vowels. In regions where the [c ɟ] pronunciations are standard, there is often a slight affricatization occurring before any stressed vowel: [cç ɟʝ].
On the other hand, in certain morphologically-induced environments that trigger allomorphic voicing (to be discussed later), /x/ does voice to /γ/. Perhaps, then, it could be said that /γ/ is the voiced counterpart of /x/, but [x] not the voiceless 16 S e ct i o n 2: P h o n o l o g y counterpart of /γ/. The voiced bilabial fricative /β/ is the sole unpaired fricative, and with the possible exception of /γ/ it doesn’t behave at all like any of the other fricatives. Whenever it comes in contact with another consonant (with the inconsistent exceptions of the liquids /r l/ and the glide /j/) it lenites to [w]; it does the same word-finally.
2 Verb Roots and Conjugations Novegradian has four conjugations. Three of these are thematic—A, E, I—and one is athematic, although this last group only contains four verbs: буити buíti “be”, ѣсти iě́ sti “eat”, вѣсти vě́ sti “know”, and дати dáti “give”2. 1 There is also a secondary aspect distinction of determinate/indeterminate only see among verbs of motion, as well as various tertiary distinctions seen across various individual verbs; this latter group is more typically considered derivational or lexical, due its isolated, non-systemic presence.
A reference grammaer of the Novegradian language. Довѣднике по граматикѣ новеградескаево лизика by Martin Posthumus