By Kofi Dorvlo
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Extra resources for A grammar of Logba (Ikpana)
Wa wo (bi) iwo awɔ́ ‘say’ ‘give birth’ ‘bee’ ‘snake’ -wɔ wasa ɔwɔ́ awu plural clitic ‘owner’ ‘mortar’ ‘garment’ The Labial velar approximant /w/ occurs as second element in a consonant cluster. These are exemplified in (37). 3 ‘pound’ ‘fold’ ‘animal’ ‘orange’ Vowels Logba has a seven vowel system which is in two groups. The grouping is based on the Advanced Tongue Root feature. 2 Vowel Phonemes FRONT [+ATR] [-ATR] Close і Mid Open e CENTRAL ɛ BACK [+ATR] [- ATR] u o a ɔ Chapter 2 22 All the seven vowels are phonemic.
For instance, in the affirmative statement, akpɛ́ iva ‘you have eaten’, the tones of the syllables are as shown below. In particular, the last word has an underlying LL Chapter 2 32 tone. However, in the interrogative, the tones on this last word are realised as LHH where the last L becomes HH. The final vowel is lengthened or doubled. This is illustrated below supported with tracings from Praat:13 89a. Statement: A-kpɛ i-va L H L L 2SG-eat thing ‘You have eaten’ 89b. ’ The final tone of a polar interrogative can also be realised as extra High for emphatic reasons.
Vuvɔ fifi zuzɔ (asɔ́) ‘spoil’ ‘break’ ‘roast (pot)’ xoxu susu húhú ‘gather’ ‘urinate’ ‘shake’ In all, fricatives occur in many words. However, the velar fricatives /x/ and glottal fricative /h/ have a limited occurrence. The Voiceless Velar Fricative does not occur with the half open front vowel /ɛ/. 21. xe xoxoe axíxlánu Relative particle ‘already’ ‘difficulty’ xoxu xátsáxlá okutexoe ‘gather’ ‘rough’ ‘funeral’ The Alveolar Fricatives /s/ and /z/ are palatalized as / ʃ / and / ʒ / when they occur before the high front vowel /i/.
A grammar of Logba (Ikpana) by Kofi Dorvlo