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By Oscar E. Swan

ISBN-10: 0893572969

ISBN-13: 9780893572969

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30 2. MORPHOPHONEMICS (SOUND CHANGES) The vowel-shifts o: ó and ´: à often occur before devoiced consonants, and before j and ∏, before the suffix -Øk-. When these changes occur, they tend to be generalized to all forms of the word, including forms where Ø is realized as e, and where consequently one would not expect the shift: Regular shift: g∏ow-Øk-a: g∏ówka head-dim. boj-Øk-a: bójka fight-dim. wst´˝-Øk-a: wstà˝ka ribbon-dim. : g∏ow-Øk-Ø: g∏ówek Gpl. boj-Øk- Ø: bójek Gpl. wst´˝-Øk- Ø: wstà˝ek Gpl.

Occurs as a singular stem-extension in the neut. declension in -#: im-en-′-a: imienia name-NAsg. f. among noun suffixes, ′ occurs most prominenently as the first part of the suffix -′c-: ∏ow-′c-Ø: ∏owiec hunter-Nsg. g. among adjective suffixes, ′ occurs most prominenently as the first part of the adjective suffix -′n-: màk-′n-y: màczny flour-adj. h. ′ occurs as an imperative verb ending: nos-′: noÊ carry-imper. i. ′ occurs as a stem-extension in verbal-noun formation: ˝y-t-′-e: ˝ycie life mieszka-n-′-e: mieszkanie apartment T HE MERGER OF VOWEL MORPHOPHONEMES INTO PHONEMES Following the sound-changes which the vowel morphophonemes either condition or undergo, they lose their separate status and merge into a smaller number of vowel phonemes.

The Genitive form often functions as an ad hoc indeclinable noun of presumably feminine gender: Mieszkam na Sienkiewicza I live on Sienkiewicz Street. Jedzie si´ Sienkiewicza. One goes along Sienkiewicz Street. 7. The word r´ka hand has various irregularities. The NAVpl. form r´ce comes from an old dual form, as does the optional Ipl. r´koma. The optional Lpl. form r´ku also derives from a former dual form. It is used in the sense of ‘both hands’ and in set expressions such as dziecko na r´ku child in arms.

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A grammar of contemporary Polish by Oscar E. Swan


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